The Singapore Johor Water Agreement: An Overview
The Singapore Johor Water Agreement is a treaty between Singapore and Malaysia that was signed in 1962, and it governs the supply of water to Singapore from the Johor River. This agreement has been a vital component in the growth and development of Singapore as it relies on imported water for nearly 40% of its water supply.
The agreement was signed after the two countries gained independence, and it provides Singapore with the right to draw up to 250 million gallons of water per day (MGD) from the Johor River. The agreement is valid for 99 years and will expire in 2061.
Under the agreement, Malaysia is obligated to provide water to Singapore at a rate of 3 sen (Malaysia’s currency) per 1,000 gallons of raw water. Singapore is then responsible for treating the raw water and supplying it back to Malaysia at a rate of 50 sen (Singapore’s currency) per 1,000 gallons of treated water.
There have been several disputes over the years regarding the implementation of the agreement. These disputes have ranged from Malaysia’s objections to the pricing of water to Singapore’s concerns over the quality and quantity of water supplied.
One of the major issues has been the increasing demand for water in Singapore, which has led to Singapore developing its own water sources. The country has invested heavily in water technology for water purification, desalination, and water recycling, which has helped to reduce its dependence on foreign water sources.
However, despite these efforts, the Singapore Johor Water Agreement remains a critical component of Singapore’s water supply strategy. In recent years, the two countries have worked to resolve their differences over water issues, with both sides agreeing to cooperate on water-related matters.
In conclusion, the Singapore Johor Water Agreement is a significant treaty that has helped to ensure the water security of Singapore for nearly six decades. Despite the challenges and disputes that have arisen over the years, the agreement has served as a foundation for cooperation between Singapore and Malaysia, and it will continue to be an essential component in the water management plans of both countries.